It has been shown that the pharmacological properties of Niclosamide may be used for a variety of different purposes. This is due to the drug’s capacity to uncouple mitochondrial phosphorylation and modulate a number of signaling pathways. Diabetes, Parkinson’s, and microbial and viral illnesses might all benefit from repurposing research, including several types of cancer.
Diabetes affects more than one in ten Americans. Approximately 34.2 million persons are included in this figure. Pre-diabetes affects 88 million people, or one in three Americans. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic problems, it makes logical to investigate therapeutic options that could yield a large number of positive outcomes.
Miletus was relieved in mice by the salt version of Niclosamide (Niclosamide ethanolamine), which has higher water solubility. Increased energy expenditure and improved lipid metabolism were seen in mice fed a high-fat diet after receiving the therapy. High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) was effectively managed with the use of Niclosamide Ethanolamine.
- Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
Mitochondrial serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations can cause early Parkinson’s Disease (PD) onset. Neuroprotective effects might be generated by small compounds that activate this protein. As a result, the disease has the potential to be treated.
A potent stimulator of PINK1 in cells, Niclosamide provides substantial promise to keep the illness at bay. In order to prove the efficacy of this medication, additional PD models are needed.
- Viral Infections
Inhaling or ingesting a virus can result in a person becoming infected. Insect bites or intercourse might potentially be a source of the disease. The upper airways, throat, and nose, as well as the gastrointestinal, neurological, and reproductive systems, are all affected by viral infections. Antiviral medications are commonly used to prevent the spread of viruses and maintain a healthy immune system.
Antiviral properties of Niclosamide could possibly be harnessed in the future as host pathways can be targeted by this drug. This action has been linked to the product’s ability to reduce the severity of the illness in some cases. Niclosamide has been used to treat COVID 19, Ebola, and Zika viruses in a few studies so far.
- Bacterial Infections
When a bacterium penetrates the body, it causes an infection and triggers many reactions in the body. It can be transmitted through an open wound or the airways. Some bacterial illnesses have revealed Niclosamide’s antibacterial properties. Anthrax, TB, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are the most common threats. These results show that the medicine is equally effective as vancomycin, which is already used to treat MRSA infections.
Cancer research has long been the focus of experts’ attention and resources. Several tumors were shown to benefit from the anti-cancer properties of Niclosamide:
- Adrenocortical carcinoma
Data shows that the drug’s capacity to damage tumor cell mitochondria, decrease tumor cell growth, and cause apoptosis makes it a feasible alternative to current cancer treatments.
Niclosamide capsules has a wide range of applications in medicine. However, as with any drug on the market, there are some potential side effects. Further investigation is needed to uncover its full potential and safety concerns. Only a limited amount of evidence is now available to demonstrate its adaptability and effectiveness. Further research is needed to ensure that it can be used for a variety of therapeutic purposes.